Tag Archives: Bentonite

Gan soil detailed classification, performance, and the main effect

Source:

For the silicate mineral montmorillonite, bleaching earth or its mixture.

Attending:

Heat clearing and detoxicating. The main food or mushroom poisoning

“Chinese Materia Medica”: “the Lord of the bacterial toxin. At the end of the hot soup.

Bleaching Earth

The ecological environment:

Tuff or other volcano rock in alkaline water under the action of the alteration and.

The original form:

The montmorillonite

It is earthy. White, gray green or pink. Soapy. Strong water absorption, water absorption and swelling volume with, but in the heating after the loss of moisture absorption. Department of tuff or other volcano rock in alkaline water under the action of the alteration and.

The bleaching clay

A scattered, with a greasy feeling. The light gray color, green gray to nearly black. The powder into the water.

The bentonite

As taking montmorillonite as main component of clay. The monoclinic crystal structure of montmorillonite. Chang Chengyin crystal soil shaped block, sometimes as small scaly, chondrite. White, gray, pink, light green or other color. White stripe. Earthy luster. The naked eye can not see a set of perfect cleavage. The hardness of 1-2. Block softness, smoothness. The relative density of 2-2.7. Water expansion, the volume can be increased by several times, and into a paste. With very strong adsorption and ion exchange capacity.

The character identification:

This product is block shaped, white or grey, some due to impurities and dyed pink. Opaque; earthy luster. Hardness is low, the nail can be carved into the mark. With strong water absorption, lick the suction. The expansion of the water, and then collapse into the fine or powder. With a greasy feel. Micro soil smell, taste light. The color white, creamy feel, with strong suction force is preferred.

Microscopic identification

Polarizing microscope: thin, pale green colorless microstrip. Microcrystalline, cryptocrystalline montmorillonite are uniformly distributed particles and other clay minerals, such as quartz, rock powder and other minerals, grain size below 0.001mm. Microcrystalline montmorillonite often like leaf like, mesh distribution in rocks, local still see plaque, scaly; flake particle size in 0.002mm.

The content of montmorillonite 70%-80%. Other clay minerals: 30%-20% cryptocrystalline quartz, microcrystalline quartz, mica and other microcrystalline mineral content.

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Activated Bleaching Clay craftsmanship, bleaching and activation operations

Activated clay is a clay (mainly bentonite) as raw material, the inorganic acid, followed by water rinsing, drying adsorbent made of, look for the milky white powder, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, strong adsorption, can adsorb colored material, organic matter. Easy to absorb moisture in the air, place too long will reduce the adsorption properties. However, heated to 300 degrees Celsius above began to lose water of crystallization, is the change in structure, effects of fading effect. Senior activated clay products, products for the gray white, pink or white powder or granular, non-toxic and tasteless, insoluble in water, easy to absorb moisture; with larger specific surface area and more active acid center, so the catalytic and adsorptive ability strong, so not only have decolorization ability better, at the same time activity the degree is high, the low rate of oil, filtering speed, is the most ideal bleaching agent.

Use of activated clay widely, in animal and vegetable oil refining industry for the decolorization and purification; in the petroleum industry, used for petroleum resin, wax, paraffin oil, kerosene decolorization and purification; paper industry for paper dyes, dye, fill oil. As a fire extinguisher powder in forestry and water and soil conservation, binder hond elimination of oil in water; used as a catalyst and catalyst carrier in chemical industry, carrier insecticides, pesticides and fungicides, rubber and plastic filler, desiccant and filtering agent, adsorbent radioactive waste; in water purification and sewage treatment as absorbent and flocculant. The use of appropriate heating (80 to 100 degrees) resurrection, if heated to 300 degrees above began to lose water of crystallization, structure change, affecting decolorization.

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CA bentonite as raw material, using sulfuric acid as activator, on activated clay production process was studied by orthogonal experiment, and the optimum technological conditions are determined according to the performance of activated product activation. The results show that, the main factors affecting the decolouring ratio as the acidity, liquid to solid ratio, temperature and activation time. Under the optimum conditions, the decolorization of activated clay rate can reach more than 90%.

Key acid clay variable Activated Bleaching Clay is activation of bentonite:

Activation operation 1, bentonite, generally used in sulfuric acid as activator, sulfuric acid consumption in the range 5-25%, liquid to solid ratio in 2-5:1, activation temperature of around 95, the activation time of 4-8 hours.

2, washing acid: bentonite slurry activated containing excess acid, the impact of product use, must be washed to remove, acid reaches the standard. Generally use the rinsing solution acid, each time the amount of water is about 10 times as large as the material, fully stirring settlement) 1-2 hours, the supernatant was removed, rinse 3-5 times, so that the final rinse solution of pH of 4-5.

3, solid-liquid separation and drying

Contain a lot of water slurry after washing, filtration or centrifugal way by dehydration, electric heating drying oven drying, the general temperature at around 105, 2-3 hours.

4, crushing and classification

The dried material agglomeration is more, has a certain hardness, need grinding sieve, obtained for activated clay products, sealing packing.

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Details of the use of bentonite

Bentonite is widely used:

1 casting industry

Casting bentonite is the largest user of bentonite, the annual amount of 1100000 tons.

Bentonite used in casting is mainly applied to the clay bonded sand, because bentonite has strong adhesion, high plasticity, good air permeability characteristics of stripping, stable physical and chemical properties, such as high temperature and wet conditions. Clay bonded sand for molding material production casting process, this is a long history, thriving in a variety of chemical bonded sand today, clay wet sand is still the most important molding material, its applicable scope, consumption of large, is any other material can not be compared to. High pressure molding, injection molding, molding, static modeling and non shock pressure vacuum process modeling in modern times, also is to use the clay wet sand as the premise, the ability to adapt to the other conditions of the clay wet sand strong. Casting bentonite mainly sodium bentonite and calcium sodium bentonite two, sodium bentonite is made from natural sodium bentonite or artificial Na bentonite processing, with its good reusability and the wet compression strength is high and the foundry industry are welcome. Because of good plasticity, can prevent the scab, scab, dropping block, sand mold collapse, and the molding cavity strong, high strength, convenient metal industry casting wet or dry mold, sand binder precision casting is preferred. Calcium sodium bentonite from natural calcium base bentonite processing, is widely used in light of casting sand binder. The utility and sand casting convenient and popular with users. Compared with other binder, bentonite has an important characteristic, is that it has certain heat capacity. As long as the heating temperature is not too high, the removal of free water bentonite as long as water, still can restore the adhesive ability. Binding capacity of bentonite in water can be manifested only after. Bentonite lose the binding ability, also with its dehydration. So far, that of bentonite in the water has three forms: a water free water, granular bentonite adsorbed water, heated to 100 ℃, can remove free water, removing free water bentonite, adhesive ability was not affected by the two kinds of water is strong; combined with water, long time heating at 110 ℃, bentonite can be removed completely free water, but does not remove firmly bound water. Has been completely removing free water bentonite, then at a higher temperature (200 ℃, 300 ℃) heating will continue to lose weight, there is still water loss. Bentonite by heating after dehydration, just add water, can completely recover bonding ability; three kinds of water is crystal water, also known as the structure of water. The lattice water to some or all removed only in high temperature. Lattice water removing swelling water, that the loss of binding capacity, become dead clay. Different bentonite, loss of binding capacity of different temperature. By differential thermal analysis experiments show that: Generally speaking, the failure temperature natural sodium bentonite is 638 ℃, calcium bentonite is 316 ℃. Artificial activation of Na bentonite, due to the activation of different conditions, the temperature is not a failure, but lower than the natural sodium bentonite.

2 drilling mud

Bentonite for drilling mud is bentonite second users, the annual amount of 700000 tons.

Bentonite is a kind of clay mineral with montmorillonite as main component, has strong water absorbability, can absorb the equivalent of 8 times the volume of the water itself, the volume expansion of 10 ~ 30 times, was suspended and colloidal state in aqueous solution. In oil, gas drilling work, want to use mud to cool the drill bit, remove debris, protect wall and equilibrium pressure. Bentonite dispersivity, grout amount is large, so it is ideal material for manufacturing drilling mud. As drilling mud bentonite, the most important requirement is the suspension properties, wet sieve analysis and moisture content.

Bentonite

The important effect of bentonite in drilling, makes its use very large. It is understood, the average recovery wells, about the use of bentonite 8 tons.

3 iron ore pellet

Iron ore pellet bentonite is bentonite third users, the annual amount of 450000 tons.

Iron ore pellet bentonite is one of the important material attached to the modern metallurgy industry, will concentrate powder adding bentonite bentonite and water after mixing pelletizer roll into a ball, and then drying and preheating, roasting has formed a high strength of pellet for smelting.

4 activated clay and clay particles

Activated clay is a kind of chemical products with bentonite processing, has multiple functions of activated carbon, and the price is cheaper than activated carbon. Therefore, a variety of mineral oil, the oil industry is widely applied in the petroleum industry of animal and vegetable oils, solid, liquid paraffin wax, fatty acid, regeneration of waste oil, ethanol and benzene decoloration refining. Can also be used as a Wine and juice clarification, sugar industry syrup purification, chemical industry, the catalyst powder pesticide additives etc..

Activated clay China manufacturer about 40, annual output of about 420000 tons. Device for producing ability is 50000 t/a. Activated clay production mainly concentrated in the northeast, North China, East China, production accounted for over 70% of the country. At present, the demand for activated clay in China is about 650000 t/a, annual imports of about 40000 tons.

Particulate clay is the activated clay as the main raw material, scientific formula, chemical processing and become, the appearance of unshaped granular activated clay, it has higher specific surface area and particle strength, stable performance, good selectivity, has a very high adsorption capacity, widely used in petrochemical industry aromatics purification, air kerosene refined, but also for refined oil, base oil, diesel oil, residual olefins, glial, Li Qing, and other impurities removing basic nitrogen compounds. At present, the clay particles is mainly to replace the America TONSIL particulate clay, used for the fitting of olefins removal, aviation kerosene, solvent oil refining, benzene refining, play a nitride removal, colloid, coloring effect. Particulate clay is sometimes called the oil filter oil filter using silica gel, silica gel can be good to remove the acid and the extract oil sludge, biological colloid, insulating material, can remove moisture, impurities and chromatographic analysis of hydrocarbon gases, and can be used for sewage treatment and toxic gas filtering and petrochemical industrial oil catalytic cracking.

5 desiccant

The bentonite drier with adsorption activity, static reduction effect wet and odor removal etc.. Widely used in not using oil seal, gas seal products such as: optical instruments, electronic products, medical care, food packaging and military products and civil products of dry air seal. Compared with silica gel has the advantages of low cost, fast adsorption speed, preparation and low cost. And the other type of desiccant commercially available in comparison, not only the characteristics of adsorption speed, high adsorption capacity and non-toxic, tasteless, non corrosive, non environmental pollution, especially used in food packaging, no harm to human body.

The bentonite drier larger export volume.

6 litter (granular bentonite)

Litter (granular bentonite) uses the high quality natural bentonite, after high temperature drying refined, has a white color appearance, strong adsorption characteristics, the proportion of small, durable, suitable for family pets sanitation purposes.

Litter (granular bentonite) exports large.

7 sewage treatment

Bentonite used as animal feed processing wastewater, gasket odor bentonite can make animal feces easily dispersed, cleaning. The captive animal farms and slaughterhouses, aquatic products processing field generated sewage, odor and harmful to the environment, and bentonite in these places, the recovery efficiency of fertilizer.

Bentonite can be used as clarifier in muddy water, polluted water proofing agent, sewage treatment agent. Printing and dyeing wastewater with bentonite, coal gas washing wastewater, monosodium glutamate factory waste water, waste, removal rate of 99.5%.

And bentonite in the upstream of the reservoir the reservoir unclean substances into the bottom of the flocculation biological purification treatment.

8,The  Construction Engineering

The lubrication of bentonite, bonding and sealing, thickening and gelling into mud, used for lining wall impermeable soil operations, such as wall construction, grouting, pile, caisson, land impervious, cement and concrete construction additives, solid water transport, sewage treatment and tunnel shield lubrication.

Bentonite impervious layer Pu River, the limited water leads to distant. Bentonite waterproof layer can be made of natural sodium bentonite powder is spread directly, also can use bentonite with local soil compaction, can also be bentonite sandwiched between two layers of fabric to form a waterproof (permeability) blanket (plate), fast to build a reservoir, reservoir water kiln, the canal.

Bentonite can be used as waterproof materials, waterproof felt waterproof board, corrugated cardboard loaded bentonite sandwiched between two layers of non-woven fabrics of bentonite and a layer of non-woven fabric with a plastic board is clamped in the middle of the bentonite double waterproof board, this material has been widely used in the subway, the bottom of the dam, the landfill of underground engineering in the process of. Bentonite has high water tightness and self repair function of the restoration, waterproof have compactness (sodium bentonite in water to form the diaphragm, the compactness of the 30cm thickness of clay layer thickness is about 5mm, equivalent to 100 times of water), self performance (sodium bentonite and water reaction when, with expansion force, L3l6 times so it can repair 2mm within the cracks of concrete surface with waterproof performance) and permanent (sodium bentonite does not occur with aging or corrosion) etc.. Harmless to human body of bentonite, environmental performance is excellent. Simple construction. No need for heating and paste, not affected by temperature. At the same time, short construction period, compared with other waterproof materials, construction is relatively simple compared to soft. Only the nails and washer. After the construction does not need the special inspection, if found waterproof defects also easy to repair.

9 food

As food additives and emulsifier in food, can be used as calcium and diet food.

Bentonite can make juice, juice clarification.

Bentonite can soften hard water.

Bentonite to fix nitrogen deposition method for wine clarification, reduce acetaldehyde formation and the formation of hydrogen sulfide, eliminate all alien smell.

10 coating

Bentonite in papermaking industry as multifunctional white paint, anti pitching adsorption agent, maintaining agent, in the pulp of rheological modifier role in machinery it still pulper.

Bentonite can also produce coating. As the viscosity regulator and white mineral filler in the coating, which can partially or completely replace titanium dioxide; also can replace part of polyvinyl alcohol, as well as binder for nonwoven, gypsum particles.

Bentonite of oxidized starch adhesive was modified, which can not only improve the solid content, gum reduced the water, also can plug and fill the paper fiber (especially the straw pulp paper) space, reduce the moisture permeability, thus improves the initial adhesion adhesive and drying speed. Experiments prove that the bentonite effect is good, and the price is low, is the ideal drying agent.

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The use of Activated Bleaching Earth, characteristics, production processes and packaging

The white and pink, odorless and tasteless, non-toxic, good activity, strong adsorption, easy to absorb moisture in the air, such as placing too long or moisture will reduce its adsorption function, the use of appropriate heating (80 to 100 degrees) resurrection, if heated to 300 degrees above began to lose water of crystallization the structure, change, influence the bleaching effect

Activated Bleaching Earth product quality to meet the actual needs of users, can not just look at the sales contract index. For example: the filtration rate, oil rate, specific surface area, light stability, acid value of oil peroxide value, alkali nitrogen and other indicators, not making up the quality standard of the existing. The ore will be tested with laboratory data, and big difference is very big. Can not be used as the basis to build factories, geographical environment and social relationships, to detailed examination. Then, list the various process flow. It selects the best plan, to achieve high-quality, high yield, low consumption, safety objective.

Activated Bleaching Earth

Requirements for Activated Bleaching Earth  products technology:

1, appearance: white or light coloured fine powders.

2, water (2hr.105 ° C): ≤ 12%

The decolorizing capacity: 3, ≥ 154

4, activity: ≥ 180mol/kg

5, size (0.076mm): 95%

6, the free acid (H2SO4): ≤ 0.20%

7, the content of heavy metal (Pb): 10mg/kg

8, the arsenic content: ≤ 3mg/kg

The production process of activated clay:

The CA bentonite as contrast in production of Activated Bleaching Earth  materials, each process will make the optimization, the calculated per ton of product can shop to reduce costs 191 yuan, if the production of activated clay with high viscosity sodium magnesium bentonite, also need a process of elimination of glioma. Strong and high purity montmorillonite to produce activated clay with natural decoloring capacity, lower production cost.

Package and storage:

50kg plastic bags, stored in ventilation, cool and dry place, prevent mechanical impact, anti rain.

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Bentonite Overview and Classification

The bentonite interlayer cations depends on the type of bentonite type, interlayer cation is Na+ called sodium bentonite; interlayer cation is Ca2+ called calcium base bentonite; interlayer cation is H+ called hydrogen bentonite (activated clay, natural bleaching soil acid clay); interlayer cation organic cation organic bentonite.

Classification of bentonite:

Activated clay:

Activated clay is a clay (mainly bentonite) as raw material, the inorganic acid, followed by water rinsing, drying adsorbent made of, look for the milky white powder, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, strong adsorption, can adsorb colored material, organic matter. Easy to absorb moisture in the air, place too long will reduce the adsorption properties. However, heated to 300 degrees Celsius above began to lose water of crystallization, the structure changes, effects of fading effect. Activated clay is insoluble in water, organic solvents and oils, almost completely soluble in hot caustic soda and hydrochloric acid, the relative density of 2.3 ~ 2.5, in water and oil swelling minima.

Bentonite

Natural bleaching clay:

The natural output itself has a bleaching properties of clay, montmorillonite, with sodium feldspar, quartz is the main component of the white, white and gray clay, is a kind of bentonite.

Is mainly a result of vitreous volcano rock after the decomposition of water after the expansion, it is not, the pH value of the suspension is weak acidic and alkaline bentonite phase difference; the bleaching performance than activated clay difference. Color generally have pale yellow, green and white, grey, Xi Lan color, brown, white, pink, blue. Very few pure white. The density of 2.7-2.9g/cm. Apparent density because of the porous nature relationship and often lower. The chemical composition and the ordinary clay almost, is the main chemical compositions of three two aluminum oxide, silica, water and a small amount of iron, magnesium, calcium. No plasticity, have higher adsorption. Because of containing a large amount of acidic aqueous silicate, litmus. Water easily cracking, high water content. General rules for higher fineness the decoloring capacity.

Quality evaluation is at the exploration stage, to determine the bleaching properties, acidity, filtration, oil absorption etc.

Organic:

Organic bentonite is a kind of inorganic / organic ammonium compound, using bentonite as raw material, the lamellar structure of montmorillonite in bentonite and its energy in water or organic solvent swelling dispersing into colloid clay characteristics, by ion exchange technology insertion organic covering agent and made of. Organic bentonite can form gel in all kinds of organic solvent, oil, liquid resin, has good thickening, thixotropy, suspension stability, high temperature stability, lubricity, film, water resistance and chemical stability, and has important application value in the coatings industry. They are widely used in paint and ink, aviation, metallurgy, chemical, petroleum industry etc..

Soil mineral:

Bentonite ore is a multi-purpose mineral, its quality and application fields mainly depends on the content of montmorillonite and attribute types and their crystal chemistry characteristics. Thus, its development and utilization must be different according to the different mine, because of different. Such as the production of activated clay, sodium calcium base to base, drilling grouting for oil drilling, instead of starch pastes for spinning, dyeing and printing, building materials for interior and exterior wall paint, preparation of organic bentonite, bentonite, zeolite 4A synthesis in white carbon black production etc..

Calcium and sodium based difference:

The bentonite interlayer cations depends on the type of bentonite type, interlayer cation is Na+ called sodium bentonite; interlayer cation is Ca+ called calcium base bentonite. Sodium montmorillonite (or sodium bentonite) properties than calcium. But the distribution of the calcareous soil far wider than sodic soil, so in addition to find sodic soil is to calcareous soil was modified, make it become sodic soil.

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Activated clay production technology and economic

Activated clay is a clay (mainly bentonite) as raw material, the inorganic acid, followed by water rinsing, drying adsorbent made of, look for the milky white powder, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, strong adsorption, can adsorb colored material, organic matter. Easy to absorb moisture in the air, place too long will reduce the adsorption properties. However, heated to 300 degrees Celsius above began to lose water of crystallization, is the change in structure, effects of fading effect. Activated clay is insoluble in water, organic solvents and oils, almost completely soluble in hot caustic soda and hydrochloric acid, the relative density of 2.3 ~ 2.5, in water and oil swelling minima. Widely used in mineral oil, animal and vegetable oil, wax and organic liquid decoloration refining. Can also be used as a moisture desiccant, internal medicine alkali antidote, vitamin A, B adsorption agent, lubricating oil contact contact agent, the gasoline vapor refining agent, can also be used as a temperature of polymerization catalyst, high temperature polymerization agent and manufacturing of particulate clay raw material.

Activated Clay

Activated clay production method of bentonite as raw material of activated clay production bentonite as raw material are all wet, dry, semi wet, vapor phase method, calcination etc..

The conventional wet is bentonite, sulfuric acid, water after mixing in the case of mixing heated to 100 ℃ activation for a period of time after washing, drying, crushing to obtain the product. Disadvantages of this method is the largest consumption of acid, resulting in washing water consumption, serious environmental pollution, high cost. The following steps: processing; the original soil beating, purification and emission sand and water; adding acid and water, in the range of 80 ~ 100 ℃ activation of 10 – 30min, and at the same time, 1000r/min and stirring; filtering, filtrate recycling and refining purification step, the filter residue to the next step; drying, crushing; finished product testing, packaging. Dry the traditional production process is a small amount of sulfuric acid and water and bentonite mixture and stir well, for a period of time, then drying, grinding to obtain the product. Although this method reduces the consumption of acid, no waste water discharge, the pollution of the environment, but the quality of the products is low, which greatly limits its use. The following steps: processing; adding acid and water extrusion method at room temperature solid phase activation; drying and crushing; finished product testing, packaging. The production process and semi wet is a small amount of sulfuric acid and water and bentonite mixture and stir well, activated under certain temperature (placed) for a period of time, then adding acid and water and then a second step activation. The following steps: processing; adding acid and water at room temperature solid state extrusion method activation; adding acid and water activation; rinsing; filtering; drying, crushing; finished product testing, packaging. The production process and semi wet it can solve some problems of the wet and dry, simple process, low cost, high product quality.

Generally speaking, the production technology of semi wet than the traditional process of acid consumption reduced by half to 2/3 (1/2 ~ 2/3), water use reduced 1/2 ~ 2/3, less waste water, a treatment that is no environmental pollution, low cost, under the same conditions, the quality of the products. 30% than the traditional method of decoloring capacity. Vapor phase technique in pressure thermal vapor to water, acids, soil and dry mix granular mixture, between static by vapor phase, liquid phase, solid phase was acidified reacted furiously to form semi dry granular acidification, a kind of new technologies by rinsing processes for the preparation of active clay. The technology to technology as one of the advantages of the existing legal system of dry and wet clay and calcination method of activated white clay production technology, has a good practical value, provides a new technology for China clay production. The technology and traditional wet preparation of activated clay process compared with the following advantages:

The consumption of acid and water consumption were reduced by about 50%, the production period is shortened by 1/2 ~ 1/3; the light pollution, and easy to control; it covers an area of small, high utilization rate of equipment, less investment, quick effect and close connection with the existing wet process and equipment. According to different processes, activated clay can be aluminum, silicon and aluminum sulfate white sodium sulfate, gypsum etc..

Economic benefit analysis of bentonite raw material price is about 250 yuan / ton, ordinary activated clay the domestic market price of about 1200 yuan 1500/ tons.

According to the 10000 tons of activated clay size estimation, equipment and infrastructure investment of about 300 – 4000000 yuan, cost 600 to 700 yuan / ton, the annual output value of 14000000 yuan, profits and taxes 6000000 yuan. If the production of white carbon black, 4A molecular sieve higher benefits. Bentonite is our advantage in resources, reserves ranking first in the world, but the development and utilization of deep processing started late, backward technology, poor product quality, production scale is small, high-quality activated clay domestic oil bleaching and other departments use still need to be imported from abroad. USA activated clay production capacity has reached 4000000 tons / year or more, and our country is only 200000 tons per year. According to statistics, in recent years in China on activated clay demand at an annual increase rate of 7-8%. After investigation and analysis of the domestic market, only the oil refining market is huge, according to industry experts predict, China’s annual output of various vegetable oil is about 8000000 tons, imported oil 500 – 6000000 tons of refined oil, which accounted for 1/2, about 6500000 tons. Therefore, the production of activated clay and broad market prospect.

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Bentonite encyclopedic knowledge

Bentonite (Bentonite) is an aqueous clay mineral montmorillonite based. The chemical composition of montmorillonite as: (Al2, Mg3) Si4O10 OH2 · nH2O, because of its special properties. Such as swelling, adhesion, adsorption, catalysis, thixotropy, suspension and cation exchange. It is widely used in various industrial fields.

Bentonite is non-metallic mineral montmorillonite as the main mineral composition, the structure of montmorillonite is 2:1 type crystal structure consists of two silicon oxygen tetrahedron sandwiching a layer of alumina in eight face bentonite composition, due to the layered structure of montmorillonite crystal formation in the presence of some cations, such as Cu, Mg, Na, K, and these cationic and montmorillonite lattice effect is very unstable, easily by other cation exchange, it has good ion exchange. Abroad has been in the industry and agriculture production more than 100 departments in 24 fields of application, there are more than 300 products, so people called the “universal soil”.

Bentonite is also called bentonite, bentonite and bentonite. History of China’s development of the use of bentonite is long, just as a detergent. (Sichuan Renshou area hundreds of years ago in open-pit mine, the locals of bentonite clay powder). Really is widely used but only a hundred years of history. USA was first discovered in the ancient stratigraphic Wyoming, green yellow clay, the water after the expansion into paste, then people will take all the properties of bentonite clay, collectively referred to as. In fact, the main mineral component of bentonite is montmorillonite, content of 85-90%, some properties of bentonite are also determined by the montmorillonite. Montmorillonite can be a variety of colors such as yellow green, Huang Bai, gray, white and so on. Can a dense block, but also loose earth sometimes, when you rub it with your fingers with smooth feel, small body after adding water volume swell several times to 20-30 times, is suspended in the water, when water is little mushy. The properties of montmorillonite and the chemical composition and its internal structure.

Bentonite

The bentonite interlayer cations depends on the type of bentonite type, interlayer cation is Na+ called sodium bentonite; interlayer cation is Ca2+ called calcium base bentonite; interlayer cation is H+ called hydrogen bentonite (activated clay, natural bleaching soil acid clay); interlayer cation organic cation organic bentonite.

Bentonite is a kind of clay, montmorillonite clay rock or rock, often containing a small amount of illite, kaolinite, halloysite, chlorite, quartz, feldspar, zeolite, calcite; usually white, pale yellow, due to changes in iron content is light gray, light green, pink, brown red, brick red, black etc.; with wax, earthy or oil sheen; bentonite some loose soil, there are dense and hard. The main chemical composition is three silica, two aluminum oxide and water, also contain iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium and other elements, Na2O and CaO content on properties of physical and chemical properties of bentonite and technology influence. Montmorillonite belongs to monoclinic system, usually it is earthy block, white, sometimes reddish, greenish, yellowish color. Luster dim. Hardness of 1 ~ 2, density of 2 ~ 3g/cm3. Type, content and layer charge of montmorillonite according to the size of the exchangeable cation, bentonite can be divided into Na bentonite (alkaline soil), calcium base bentonite (alkaline soil), natural bleaching earth (acidic soil or clay acid), in which calcium bentonite and sodium calcium base and calcium and magnesium based etc.. Bentonite has strong hygroscopic and expansion, water adsorption can be 8 to 15 times their size, the volume expansion of up to two to 30 times; can be dispersed into gelatinous and suspended in water medium, the medium solution with viscosity, degeneration and some lubrication; strong cation exchange capacity; for various gases, liquids, organic matter has certain adsorption capacity, the maximum adsorption capacity of up to 5 times its own weight; it with water, mud or sand blends with plasticity and cohesiveness; acid bleaching soil with surface activity (active white soil, natural bleaching soil acidity clay can adsorb colored ion).

Bentonite has strong moisture absorption, can absorb the equivalent volume 8 20 times of water and swells to 30 times; can be dispersed colloidal suspensions in water medium, and has a certain viscosity, thixotropy and lubrication, the admixture of bentonite and silt has plasticity and cohesiveness, strong cation exchange capacity and adsorption capacity.

The naked eye identification, high-quality bentonite was pure white, generally have gray or no yellow white, often due to water or containing impurities are pale green, pale green, rose red color. After drying is pure white, gray or pale yellow white. In section is not smooth hand after the break, but a jelly. There are oil sheen, hand touch with smooth feel. Can water swelling, good can become colloid. If long-term dry moisture loss, and can become loose. Bentonite has strong ion exchange capacity, so it can be adsorbed or absorbed a variety of colors. It can make the oil and oil mixed, more smooth. Suspension of fine powder of its water, dispersion (divergence) is very good, not easy to precipitate. The natural bentonite type, mainly by the relative content of montmorillonite cation species divided into calcium, sodium, hydrogen, Lithium Montmorillonite, such as the calcium montmorillonite based clay called calcium base bentonite. Most of bentonite ore in China in the production of calcium base bentonite, calcium base bentonite sodium bentonite is cheap, and easily, so we in the broiler and layer test, are calcium base bentonite. With the addition of bentonite feeding chickens, because good palatability, chicken to eat.

But only by the naked eye, sensory evaluation is not accurate. There is no uniform identification of bentonite in China National standard. The majority of mine to execute a machine on the “casting bentonite, a clay ministerial standard” (1997) and enterprise standards. The main absorption of blue, water, colloid medium, pass rate, wet strength, expansion coefficient, pH value, determination methods and standards here omitted.

The county more than bentonite plant has more than 20, and do the bentonite plant has more than 100, the vast majority of provinces (autonomous regions) are. Most of the county (city) building materials company or goods shopping malls have bentonite. Market town where the foundry factory usually with bentonite, less dosage can contact them, but must pay attention to quality.

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