Category Archives: Bleaching Clay

Gan soil detailed classification, performance, and the main effect


For the silicate mineral montmorillonite, bleaching earth or its mixture.


Heat clearing and detoxicating. The main food or mushroom poisoning

“Chinese Materia Medica”: “the Lord of the bacterial toxin. At the end of the hot soup.

Bleaching Earth

The ecological environment:

Tuff or other volcano rock in alkaline water under the action of the alteration and.

The original form:

The montmorillonite

It is earthy. White, gray green or pink. Soapy. Strong water absorption, water absorption and swelling volume with, but in the heating after the loss of moisture absorption. Department of tuff or other volcano rock in alkaline water under the action of the alteration and.

The bleaching clay

A scattered, with a greasy feeling. The light gray color, green gray to nearly black. The powder into the water.

The bentonite

As taking montmorillonite as main component of clay. The monoclinic crystal structure of montmorillonite. Chang Chengyin crystal soil shaped block, sometimes as small scaly, chondrite. White, gray, pink, light green or other color. White stripe. Earthy luster. The naked eye can not see a set of perfect cleavage. The hardness of 1-2. Block softness, smoothness. The relative density of 2-2.7. Water expansion, the volume can be increased by several times, and into a paste. With very strong adsorption and ion exchange capacity.

The character identification:

This product is block shaped, white or grey, some due to impurities and dyed pink. Opaque; earthy luster. Hardness is low, the nail can be carved into the mark. With strong water absorption, lick the suction. The expansion of the water, and then collapse into the fine or powder. With a greasy feel. Micro soil smell, taste light. The color white, creamy feel, with strong suction force is preferred.

Microscopic identification

Polarizing microscope: thin, pale green colorless microstrip. Microcrystalline, cryptocrystalline montmorillonite are uniformly distributed particles and other clay minerals, such as quartz, rock powder and other minerals, grain size below 0.001mm. Microcrystalline montmorillonite often like leaf like, mesh distribution in rocks, local still see plaque, scaly; flake particle size in 0.002mm.

The content of montmorillonite 70%-80%. Other clay minerals: 30%-20% cryptocrystalline quartz, microcrystalline quartz, mica and other microcrystalline mineral content.

Bleaching clay and hemodialysis in the treatment of paraquat poisoning Clinical Experience


Nearly 3 years of emergency department treated a total of 20% oral paraquat poisoning patients in 26 cases, oral dose of 50 ~ 200 ml, including 8 male cases, 18 female cases, the age is the smallest 14 years old, the biggest 76 years old, average 36 years old. After the poisoning to the short time of 13 min, the long time is 78 H. Among them

10 cases of patients outside the hospital to hospital days, the shortest was 8 days, the longest 32 days, average 19 days of hospitalization. 8 patients died in hospital (3 case died of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, and 5 patients died of multiple organ failure), accounting for 30.7%, 8 cases of death were not at the same time, the use of bleaching earth and hemoperfusion and hemodialysis. The remaining patients were used bleaching clay intragastric injection or oral, and adopts the blood perfusion / hemodialysis, 15 patients cured, improved and request to leave the hospital in 3 patients, the success rate of rescue 69. 2%.

Bleaching Clay

Treatment methods

For patients within 24 h were given 1%NaHCO3 gastric lavage paraquat (PQ may be alkaline hydrolysis), until the gastric lavage liquid clean, colorless, tasteless so far. The patients had different degree of vomiting in this group of 26 patients with paraquat poisoning, available ondansetron 8 mg or vitamin B6 10 mg intravenous injection control vomiting, if accompanied by facial and skin medicine traces should be cleaned immediately, gastric lavage after bleaching clay 15% to 300 ~ 350 ml or 2 activated carbon g/kg allows patients to oral or directly through the tube into the stomach, each of the 4 h 1 times, until the stop cinereous stool after discharge. At the same time, since the tube injection 20% mannitol 250 ml, should also be cleaning enema, after 2 h in non dialysis relative contraindications (shock or hypotension, blood pressure less than 80 mmHg, severe myocardial lesions lead to pulmonary edema, heart failure, severe arrhythmia, serious bleeding or hemorrhage, malignant tumor, the extreme failure of psychiatric patients, not cooperation with, or family member and I don’t agree with hemodialysis) under the premise, given hemoperfusion hemodialysis alleviate poison on / toxicity of kidney, in order to reduce the paraquat on oral mucosa and tongue body damage can be give

NaHCO3 solution gargle 0.5%, every time 50 ml, 4 h 1, at the same time with plenty of vitamin C 6 to 8 g/d, eliminating oxygen free radicals, dexamethasone injection 10 ~ 20 mg/d prevention and treatment of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, protect the digestive tract injury in gastric parietal cells of large area available proton pump inhibitors omeprazole 40 mg, 2 times per day 1 ~ however, the drug allergies are disabled, all drugs should avoid the damage to liver and kidney function, at the same time should closely observe respiratory function, can also be used Human Albumin nutrition respiratory muscle, if there should be timely respiratory failure mechanical ventilation, and maintain water balance

Prevention and treatment of complications:

The main complications of paraquat poisoning for direct damage, gastrointestinal interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, liver and kidney damage and early use of bleaching earth let patients by oral or nasogastric tube into the stomach to paraquat was inactivated, timely use of hemoperfusion and hemodialysis, promote the excretion of toxic substances, pay attention to oral nursing, avoid drug use is toxic to the liver and kidney are very important

Introduces bleaching clay, performance and formation process

Bleaching clay is also called “bentonite”, “bleaching earth”, dominated by smectite group minerals. Common minerals include feldspar, gypsum, calcite, quartz and the incomplete decomposition of volcano tuff material. General pink, white, yellowish, grayish green color. The appearance of colloidal, low hardness, immersed in water to swell, no plastic, low refractoriness. Often the tuff or volcano rock in sea water or groundwater, by weathering in alkaline medium (pH=7-8.5) environment of deposition. Because it has strong absorbency and water swelling, so use in petrochemical fields, such as used in petroleum, oil, sugar, wine making, paper making, textile and other industries as a purifying agent and bleaching agent.

Bleaching clay mineral filter is always a tricky and long-term unsolved problems. Slurry by ultrafine grinding, grading and bleaching, must pay the economic price. If the filtering problem can not be solved well, not only directly affect the enterprise efficiency, waste of mineral resources, but also polluted water and environment phenomenon is very serious

Bleaching Clay

Clay is mainly composed of aluminous rocks, such as feldspar, pegmatite granite, porphyry, gneiss through long-term weathering, and often through the water transport and deposition, is a variety of fine mineral mixed body, its main chemical composition is SiO2, Al2O3 and crystal water. With the geological formation conditions are different, also contain a small amount of alkali metal oxide, alkaline earth metal oxide and metal oxides.

Most of the literature on clay will start to define or clay to some professional terminology to explain, this is very necessary, because the varieties and usage of clay is indeed much. Often the clay was classified according to Mineralogy, geology, chemical composition, physical properties of the cause or industrial purposes.

There are 3 ways: 1. The formation of clay minerals is related to weathering. Types and medium weathered rock conditions such as water, climate, landform, vegetation and time factors determine the mineral species and save or not. Hydrothermal and hot spring water in rock, can form the clay mineral alteration zone. ③ by sedimentation, diagenesis mineral formation clay. In modern or ancient sediments can sometimes be formed with industrial significance of kaolin, bentonite, palygorskite, sepiolite clay and clay rock.

Use of kaolin is mainly used for ceramic raw materials, papermaking filler and coating; mainly consisting of montmorillonite bentonite used as drilling mud, binder catalyst oil refining and bleaching agent, iron ore pellet and casting sand binder; palygorskite and sepiolite clay is the manufacture of salt mud quality raw materials, grease decoloring agent and absorbent.

The formation and properties of bleaching clay

The performance of adsorption and by bleaching clay has large surface area, high, from bentonite by activating (acidification) made after processing. Bleaching clay world market sales of about 860000 t/a, of which 70% ~ 80% for edible oils and fats industry. The development of bleaching clay by effects of edible oil industry development the biggest.

Clay is mainly composed of aluminous rocks, such as feldspar, pegmatite granite, porphyry, gneiss through long-term weathering, and often through the water transport and deposition, is a variety of fine mineral mixed body, its main chemical composition is SiO2, Al2O3 and crystal water. With the geological formation conditions are different, also contain a small amount of alkali metal oxide, alkaline earth metal oxide and metal oxides.

More types of main minerals in clay, kaolin clay can be divided into Tu, illite and smectite clay and clay. According to the production conditions, the clay can be divided into primary clay (Primary clay) and secondary (Secondary clay), a native of clay is feldspar weathering generated kaolin and other aqueous silicate minerals, quartz and other debris, not completely weathered residual in situ, and soluble salts are dissolved; secondary clay is composed of primary clay transfer to other places again crystalline clay in the natural dynamic conditions. According to the plasticity of the clay can be divided into soft clay (high plasticity clay), semi soft clay (plasticity clay) and hard clay (low plasticity clay), soft clay are secondary clay, because of its fine particle size, large dispersion, the plasticity; the hard clay the diagenesis, the free water is not easy to enter and the lack of leaching dispersion, poor plasticity. Use of refractory book called clay, it is divided according to the clay image, and the corresponding: ceramic clay, bleaching clay, paper clay and cement clay.


The crystal structure and crystal chemistry characteristics determine the nature of some of their. The ion exchange. Some characteristics of cation and anion adsorption and keep the exchange state. General cation is Ca2+, Mg2+, H+, K+, (NH4) +, Na+, exchangeable anion is common (SO4) 2-, Cl-, (PO4) 3-, (NO3) -. Kaolinite cation exchange capacity was lowest, 5 to 15 mEq /100 g; cation exchange capacity of montmorillonite, vermiculite, 100 to 150 mEq /100 G. The cation exchange is the cause of the broken bond and lattice isomorphous substitution caused by unsaturated charge need to have balanced by adsorption of cationic. Anion exchange is the metasomatism lattice exposed hydroxyl ions. The characteristics of the clay water system. The presence of clay minerals in the water to absorb water, interlayer water and structural water in the form of. Structure of water losing only in the destruction of high temperature structure, but the adsorbed water, interlayer water and the structure of sepiolite porous zeolite in water is low, the low temperature (100 ~ 150 ℃) after heating can emerge, at the same time as the smectite mineral water can also be water recovery, this is an important the characteristics of. The clay minerals and the role of water swelling, dispersing and condensation characteristics, viscosity, thixotropy and plasticity is widely used in the industry. The reaction characteristics of the clay minerals and organic matter. Some clay minerals and organic reaction for the formation of organic complexes, improved its performance, expanded the scope of application, and also can be used as a basis for analysis and identification of minerals. Such as montmorillonite in exchangeable calcium or sodium is organic ion replacement after the formation of organic complexes, which increases the distance between layers, from the transformation of the original hydrophilic oleophobic as dear oil hydrophobic, the complex can be prepared by grease, paint additives, anti settling agent and petrochemical products. Other such as vermiculite, kaolinite, halloysite etc. can also form complexes with organic matter. In addition, clay mineral Lattice Ion Replacement and interlayer water changes often affect the change of optical properties. Iron, magnesium ion replacement eight octahedral smectite mineral in aluminum, lose or interlayer water molecules, the refractive index increases and birefringence.