The bentonite interlayer cations depends on the type of bentonite type, interlayer cation is Na+ called sodium bentonite; interlayer cation is Ca2+ called calcium base bentonite; interlayer cation is H+ called hydrogen bentonite (activated clay, natural bleaching soil acid clay); interlayer cation organic cation organic bentonite.
Classification of bentonite：
Activated clay is a clay (mainly bentonite) as raw material, the inorganic acid, followed by water rinsing, drying adsorbent made of, look for the milky white powder, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, strong adsorption, can adsorb colored material, organic matter. Easy to absorb moisture in the air, place too long will reduce the adsorption properties. However, heated to 300 degrees Celsius above began to lose water of crystallization, the structure changes, effects of fading effect. Activated clay is insoluble in water, organic solvents and oils, almost completely soluble in hot caustic soda and hydrochloric acid, the relative density of 2.3 ~ 2.5, in water and oil swelling minima.
Natural bleaching clay:
The natural output itself has a bleaching properties of clay, montmorillonite, with sodium feldspar, quartz is the main component of the white, white and gray clay, is a kind of bentonite.
Is mainly a result of vitreous volcano rock after the decomposition of water after the expansion, it is not, the pH value of the suspension is weak acidic and alkaline bentonite phase difference; the bleaching performance than activated clay difference. Color generally have pale yellow, green and white, grey, Xi Lan color, brown, white, pink, blue. Very few pure white. The density of 2.7-2.9g/cm. Apparent density because of the porous nature relationship and often lower. The chemical composition and the ordinary clay almost, is the main chemical compositions of three two aluminum oxide, silica, water and a small amount of iron, magnesium, calcium. No plasticity, have higher adsorption. Because of containing a large amount of acidic aqueous silicate, litmus. Water easily cracking, high water content. General rules for higher fineness the decoloring capacity.
Quality evaluation is at the exploration stage, to determine the bleaching properties, acidity, filtration, oil absorption etc.
Organic bentonite is a kind of inorganic / organic ammonium compound, using bentonite as raw material, the lamellar structure of montmorillonite in bentonite and its energy in water or organic solvent swelling dispersing into colloid clay characteristics, by ion exchange technology insertion organic covering agent and made of. Organic bentonite can form gel in all kinds of organic solvent, oil, liquid resin, has good thickening, thixotropy, suspension stability, high temperature stability, lubricity, film, water resistance and chemical stability, and has important application value in the coatings industry. They are widely used in paint and ink, aviation, metallurgy, chemical, petroleum industry etc..
Bentonite ore is a multi-purpose mineral, its quality and application fields mainly depends on the content of montmorillonite and attribute types and their crystal chemistry characteristics. Thus, its development and utilization must be different according to the different mine, because of different. Such as the production of activated clay, sodium calcium base to base, drilling grouting for oil drilling, instead of starch pastes for spinning, dyeing and printing, building materials for interior and exterior wall paint, preparation of organic bentonite, bentonite, zeolite 4A synthesis in white carbon black production etc..
Calcium and sodium based difference:
The bentonite interlayer cations depends on the type of bentonite type, interlayer cation is Na+ called sodium bentonite; interlayer cation is Ca+ called calcium base bentonite. Sodium montmorillonite (or sodium bentonite) properties than calcium. But the distribution of the calcareous soil far wider than sodic soil, so in addition to find sodic soil is to calcareous soil was modified, make it become sodic soil.